Planetary Gear Reduction

Many “gears” are utilized for automobiles, but they are also used for many additional machines. The most typical one may be the “transmission” that conveys the power of engine to tires. There are broadly two functions the transmission of an automobile plays : one is definitely to decelerate the high rotation rate emitted by the engine to transmit to tires; the various other is to improve the reduction ratio in Planetary Gear Reduction accordance with the acceleration / deceleration or traveling speed of an automobile.
The rotation speed of an automobile’s engine in the overall state of generating amounts to 1 1,000 – 4,000 rotations per minute (17 – 67 per second). Because it is impossible to rotate tires with the same rotation quickness to run, it is required to lower the rotation speed using the ratio of the number of gear teeth. This kind of a role is called deceleration; the ratio of the rotation speed of engine and that of tires is called the reduction ratio.
Then, exactly why is it necessary to alter the reduction ratio relative to the acceleration / deceleration or driving speed ? The reason being substances require a large force to start moving however they usually do not require this kind of a large force to keep moving once they have started to move. Automobile could be cited as an example. An engine, nevertheless, by its character can’t so finely change its output. As a result, one adjusts its output by changing the reduction ratio employing a transmission.
The transmission of motive power through gears quite definitely resembles the principle of leverage (a lever). The ratio of the number of the teeth of gears meshing with one another can be deemed as the ratio of the length of levers’ arms. That’s, if the decrease ratio is large and the rotation rate as output is lower in comparison to that as input, the energy output by transmission (torque) will be huge; if the rotation velocity as output isn’t so low in comparison compared to that as insight, however, the power output by transmitting (torque) will be small. Thus, to improve the reduction ratio utilizing transmission is much akin to the theory of moving things.
After that, how does a transmission change the reduction ratio ? The answer lies in the mechanism called a planetary equipment mechanism.
A planetary gear system is a gear mechanism consisting of 4 components, namely, sunlight gear A, several planet gears B, internal gear C and carrier D that connects world gears as seen in the graph below. It has a very complex framework rendering its style or production most challenging; it can recognize the high decrease ratio through gears, nevertheless, it really is a mechanism suited to a reduction system that requires both little size and high performance such as for example transmission for automobiles.
In a planetary gearbox, many teeth are involved at once, that allows high speed reduction to be performed with relatively small gears and lower inertia reflected back to the motor. Having multiple teeth talk about the load also allows planetary gears to transmit high levels of torque. The mixture of compact size, large speed reduction and high torque transmitting makes planetary gearboxes a favorite choice for space-constrained applications.
But planetary gearboxes perform involve some disadvantages. Their complexity in design and manufacturing tends to make them a far more expensive answer than additional gearbox types. And precision manufacturing is really important for these gearboxes. If one planetary equipment is positioned closer to sunlight gear compared to the others, imbalances in the planetary gears may appear, leading to premature wear and failure. Also, the small footprint of planetary gears makes heat dissipation more difficult, so applications that operate at very high speed or encounter continuous operation may require cooling.
When using a “standard” (i.e. inline) planetary gearbox, the motor and the powered equipment should be inline with each other, although manufacturers provide right-angle designs that include other gear sets (frequently bevel gears with helical teeth) to provide an offset between your input and output.
Input power (max)27 kW (36 hp)
Input speed (max)2800 rpm2
Output torque (intermittent)12,880 Nm(9,500 lb-ft)
Output torque (continuous)8,135 Nm (6,000 lb-ft)
1 Actual ratio would depend on the drive configuration.
2 Max input speed linked to ratio and max output speed
3 Max radial load placed at optimum load position
4 Weight varies with configuration and ratio selected
5 Requires tapered roller planet bearings (not available with all ratios)
Approximate dry weight100 -181 kg (220 – 400 lb)4
Radial load (max)14,287kg (31,500 lb)3
Drive typeSpeed reducer
Hydraulic motor input SAE C or D hydraulic
Precision Planetary Reducers
This standard range of Precision Planetary Reducers are perfect for use in applications that demand powerful, precise positioning and repeatability. They were specifically developed for make use of with state-of-the-art servo motor technology, providing restricted integration of the motor to the unit. Design features include mounting any servo motors, standard low backlash, high torsional stiffness, 95 to 97% efficiency and calm running.
They are available in nine sizes with decrease ratios from 3:1 to 600:1 and output torque capacities up to 16,227 lb.ft. The output can be provided with a solid shaft or ISO 9409-1 flange, for installation to rotary or indexing tables, pinion gears, pulleys or other drive elements without the need for a coupling. For high precision applications, backlash levels right down to 1 arc-minute are available. Right-angle and input shaft versions of these reducers are also offered.
Common applications for these reducers include precision rotary axis drives, traveling gantries & columns, materials handling axis drives and digital line shafting. Industries served include Material Managing, Automation, Aerospace, Machine Tool and Robotics.
Unit Design &
Construction
Gearing: Featuring case-hardened & ground gearing with minimal use, low backlash and low noise, making them the the majority of accurate and efficient planetaries available. Standard planetary design has three planet gears, with a higher torque version using four planets also offered, please see the Reducers with Result Flange chart on the machine Ratings tab beneath the “+” unit sizes.
Bearings: Optional output bearing configurations for application specific radial load, axial load and tilting minute reinforcement. Oversized tapered roller bearings are regular for the ISO Flanged Reducers.
Housing: Single piece steel housing with integral ring gear provides greater concentricity and get rid of speed fluctuations. The casing can be fitted with a ventilation module to improve input speeds and lower operational temperature ranges.
Result: Available in a solid shaft with optional keyway or an ISO 9409-1 flanged interface. You can expect an array of standard pinions to attach right to the output style of your choice.
Unit Selection
These reducers are typically selected based on the peak cycle forces, which often happen during accelerations and decelerations. These cycle forces depend on the driven load, the acceleration vs. period profile for the cycle, and any other exterior forces acting on the axis.
For application & selection assistance, please call, fax or email us. Your application details will be reviewed by our engineers, who will recommend the very best solution for your application.
Ever-Power Automation’s Gearbox product lines offer high precision in affordable prices! The Planetary Gearbox item offering includes both In-Line and Right-Position configurations, built with the design goal of offering a cost-effective gearbox, without sacrificing quality. These Planetary Gearboxes can be found in sizes from 40mm to 180mm, ideal for motors ranging from NEMA 17 to NEMA 42 and bigger. The Spur Gearbox line provides an efficient, cost-effective option compatible with Ever-Power Automation’s AC Induction Gear Motors. Ever-Power Automation’s Gearboxes can be found in up to 30 different gear ratios, with torque rankings up to 10,488 in-lbs (167,808 oz-in), and so are appropriate for most Servo,
SureGear Planetary Gearboxes for Small Ever-Power Motors
The SureGear PGCN series is a good gearbox value for servo, stepper, and other motion control applications requiring a NEMA size input/output interface. It provides the best quality designed for the price point.
Features
Wide range of ratios (5, 10, 25, 50, and 100:1)
Low backlash of 30 arc-min or less
20,000 hour service life
Maintenance free; requires no additional lubrication
NEMA sizes 17, 23, and 34
Includes hardware for installation to SureStep stepper motors
Optional shaft bushings available for mounting to other motors
1-year warranty
Applications
Material handling
Pick and place
Automation
Packaging
Various other motion control applications requiring a Ever-Power input/output
Spur gears are a type of cylindrical equipment, with shafts that are parallel and coplanar, and tooth that are directly and oriented parallel to the shafts. They’re arguably the simplest and most common kind of gear – easy to manufacture and suitable for an array of applications.
One’s teeth of a spur gear ‘ve got an involute profile and mesh one particular tooth simultaneously. The involute type means that spur gears simply generate radial forces (no axial forces), however the method of tooth meshing causes ruthless on the gear the teeth and high noise creation. For this reason, spur gears are often utilized for lower swiftness applications, although they could be utilized at almost every speed.
An involute gear tooth carries a profile this is the involute of a circle, which implies that since two gears mesh, they speak to at a person point where in fact the involutes satisfy. This aspect actions along the tooth areas as the gears rotate, and the type of force ( referred to as the line of activities ) is certainly tangent to both foundation circles. Hence, the gears adhere to the fundamental regulation of gearing, which statements that the ratio of the gears’ angular velocities must stay continuous through the entire mesh.
Spur gears could be produced from metals such as metal or brass, or from plastics such as nylon or polycarbonate. Gears manufactured from plastic produce much less audio, but at the difficulty of power and loading capacity. Unlike other devices types, spur gears don’t encounter high losses because of slippage, therefore they often have high transmission overall performance. Multiple spur gears can be utilized in series ( known as a equipment teach ) to attain large reduction ratios.
There are two primary types of spur gears: external and internal. Exterior gears have the teeth that are cut externally surface area of the cylinder. Two exterior gears mesh with one another and rotate in opposite directions. Internal gears, in contrast, have the teeth that are cut on the inside surface of the cylinder. An exterior gear sits within the internal gear, and the gears rotate in the same path. Because the shafts sit closer together, internal equipment assemblies are smaller sized than external equipment assemblies. Internal gears are mainly used for planetary equipment drives.
Spur gears are generally viewed as best for applications that want speed reduction and torque multiplication, such as for example ball mills and crushing equipment. Types of high- velocity applications that use spur gears – despite their high noise amounts – include consumer home appliances such as washing machines and blenders. And while noise limits the use of spur gears in passenger automobiles, they are often used in aircraft engines, trains, and even bicycles.

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